We have encountered the tetralemma (Pāḷi: catuskoti) or four-valued logic many times in our study of the Buddha’s teaching. Here is a brilliant article by Graham Priest that bridges the tetralemma with western mathematical philosophy.
“Even so, you might be wondering how on earth something could be both true and false, or neither true nor false. In fact, the idea that some claims are neither true nor false is a very old one in Western philosophy. None other than Aristotle himself argued for one kind of example. In the somewhat infamous Chapter 9 of De Interpretatione, he claims that contingent statements about the future, such as ‘the first pope in the 22nd century will be African’, are neither true nor false. The future is, as yet, indeterminate. So much for his arguments in the Metaphysics.”